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● 【公告】美國疾病管制中心2017/9/27訊息
 

HIV & AIDS in the United States

Information from CDC's Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention

美國愛滋病

美國疾病管制中心 - 愛滋病預防部門的訊息

 

September 27, 2017

2017927

 

 

Dear Colleague,

親愛的同事,

 

 

Today is National Gay Men’s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day. On this day, we join together in taking actions to prevent HIV among gay and bisexual men and ensure that all gay and bisexual men living with HIV get the care they need to stay healthy. Gay and bisexual men are severely affected by HIV. More than 26,000 gay and bisexual men received an HIV diagnosis in 2015, representing two-thirds of all new diagnoses in the United States, and diagnoses increased among Hispanic/Latino gay and bisexual men from 2010 to 2014.

在「國男同HIV/滋病」的今天,我們呼籲大家採取行動,對於男同志與雙性戀男性們共同來預防HIV病毒感染,並確保感染者都能維持健康的生活狀況,也得到妥善照顧。許多男同志和雙性戀男性們受到HIV病毒的感染,於2015年,有超過26,000名新HIV病毒感染是男同志和雙性戀男性們,占比超過美國所有新HIV病毒感染者的三分之二;而於20102014年期間,西班牙/拉丁裔的男同志和雙性戀男性們的新感染者有增加的趨勢。

 

 

However, recent trends suggest that prevention efforts are slowing the spread of HIV among some gay and bisexual men. From 2010 to 2014, HIV diagnoses fell among white gay and bisexual men and remained stable among African American gay and bisexual men after years of increases.

根據最近的趨勢顯示,HIV病毒在一些男同志和雙性戀男性們中的傳播,有減緩的現象。從20102014年間,新HIV病毒感染者在白人男同志和雙性戀男性們中有下降的情況;而在持續多年增加新感染者的非洲裔男同志和雙性戀男性們中,保持穩定的狀況。

 

 

Scientific advances have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) preserves the health of people living with HIV. We also have strong evidence of the prevention effectiveness of ART. When ART results in viral suppression, defined as less than 200 copies/ml or undetectable levels, it prevents sexual HIV transmission. Across three different studies, including thousands of couples and many thousand acts of sex without a condom or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), no HIV transmissions to an HIV-negative partner were observed when the HIV-positive person was virally suppressed. This means that people who take ART daily as prescribed and achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting the virus to an HIV-negative partner.

科學與醫療的進步顯示「抗反轉錄病毒療法(ART)」能讓HIV病毒感染者維持健康的生活,我們也有強力的證據來證明「抗反轉錄病毒療法(ART)」對於HIV病毒感染預防的效果。「抗反轉錄病毒療法(ART)」在可以抑制HIV病毒的狀況下,通常定義為病毒量低於200(單位:copies/ ml )或「測不到」時,是可以有效防止HIV病毒的傳染。通過三項不同的研究顯示,數以千計的伴侶中,包括無套性行為或愛滋病毒暴露前預防性投藥(PrEP)的上千個伴侶性行為當中,HIV病毒被抑制的陽性感染者們,都沒有將HIV病毒傳染給HIV陰性的伴侶。這就顯示當一位每日定時服用「抗反轉錄病毒療法(ART)」藥物,而且保持HIV病毒量測不到的感染者,並不具有傳染HIV病毒給HIV陰性伴侶的危險性。

 

 

However, according to a recent Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, too many gay and bisexual men living with HIV are not getting the care and treatment they need. Among gay and bisexual men living with diagnosed HIV, 61% have achieved viral suppression, more than in previous years, but well short of where we want to be. More work is needed to close this gap and to address the barriers that make it more difficult for some gay and bisexual men, including African American and Hispanic/Latino men, to get HIV care and treatment. For example, socioeconomic factors such as lower income and educational levels and cultural factors such as stigma and discrimination may affect whether some gay and bisexual men seek and are able to receive HIV treatment and prevention services.

然而,根據 發病率和死亡率週報”的最新報導,還有許多HIV病毒感染的男同志和雙性戀男性們都沒有得到他們所需要的照顧和治療。這些男性族群當中,有61%已經是HIV病毒被抑制的陽性感染者,人數占比比往年都還要高,不過還遠低於我們想要達到的目標。為了來彌合希望達到的百分比差距,我們還需要做更多的努力,並解決一些問題,包括如何讓非裔人士、西班牙/拉丁裔的男同志和雙性戀男性們都可獲得照顧和治療。例如,收入和教育水平較低等的社會經濟因素,烙印、汙名和歧視等文化因素,都可能會引響一些男同志和雙性戀男性們是否能尋求或獲得HIV病毒感染治療和預防的服務。

 

 

Some of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) activities to reduce new HIV infections among gay and bisexual men, increase testing, improve treatment outcomes, and reduce HIV-related disparities include:

美國疾病管制中心(CDC)對於減少新HIV病毒感染的男同志和雙性戀男性們,設計了一些項目:增加HIV篩檢、改善治療結果,並減少與HIV病毒有關的差異,其中包括:

 

 

Funding health departments and community-based organizations (CBOs) to support HIV prevention services for gay and bisexual men. For example, under current cooperative agreements, CDC has awarded at least $330 million per year to health departments for HIV prevention among the most affected populations and is awarding nearly $11 million per year to CBOs to provide HIV testing to young gay and bisexual men of color and transgender youth of color.

資助衛生部門和社區組織,專門為男同志和雙性戀男性們提供HIV病毒預防服務。例如,根據目前的合作協議,美國疾病管制中心(CDC)每年至少向衛生部門撥款 $3.3億美元,使用於最受HIV病毒感染族群的預防,並且每年向社區組織提供近 $1100萬美元,給予有色年輕男同志和雙性戀男性族群,以及有色年輕跨性別族群們提供HIV篩檢服務。

 

 

Supporting biomedical approaches to HIV prevention such as PrEP and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).

支持HIV病毒預防的生物醫學方法,例如:愛滋病毒暴露前預防性投藥(PrEP),以及暴露後預防性投藥(post-exposure prophylaxis; PEP)。

 

 

Supporting projects to identify promising prevention strategies, such as Project PrIDE (PrEP, Implementation, Data to Care, and Evaluation), which is helping health departments implement PrEP and Data to Care demonstration projects for gay and bisexual men of color.

支持有效預防愛滋策略的計畫,例如PrIDE項目(Pr愛滋病毒暴露前預防性投藥、I實施、D數據關注,和E評估),此計畫可幫助衛生部門對於有色男同志和雙性戀男性族群實施:愛滋病毒暴露前預防性投藥(PrEP)與數據關注(Data to Care)等兩項示範計畫。

 

 

Providing gay and bisexual men with HIV prevention and treatment messages through Act Against AIDS campaigns. For example, Doing It, which encourages all adults to get tested for HIV, includes many resources for gay and bisexual men. Start Talking. Stop HIV. helps gay and bisexual men communicate about HIV prevention, and HIV Treatment Works provides resources to help people live well with HIV.

透過“反愛滋病行動計劃”,為男同志和雙性戀男性提供HIV病毒感染預防和治療的資訊。例如,“Doing It”計畫鼓勵所有成年人接受HIV篩檢,它也為男同志和雙性戀男性提供許多有效資源。Start Talking. Stop HIV計畫幫助男同志和雙性戀男性們開始HIV病毒預防工作的溝通,還有HIV Treatment Works計畫提供資源來幫助感染者能好好地與愛滋病毒相處。

 

 

CDC encourages public and private stakeholders to implement interventions that increase retention in HIV care and viral suppression. In addition, partners such as health departments, CBOs, and others can help address stigma and discrimination—using the resources of the Act Against AIDS campaign Let’s Stop HIV Together, for example—and extend the reach of their HIV prevention and testing services that focus on gay and bisexual men. Learn more about how CDC can support your prevention programs.

美國疾病管制中心(CDC)鼓勵大眾實施增加HIV的護理,來幫助增加病毒抑制的措施。此外,衛生部門、社區組織等相關人員可以利用,例如:Act Against AIDS中的Let’s Stop HIV Together計畫資源一起協助來解決愛滋汙名和歧視,擴大對於男同志和雙性戀男性的HIV病毒預防和篩檢服務,並學習美國疾病管制中心(CDC)如何支持您的預防計劃詳情。

 

 

Thank you for your contributions to HIV prevention efforts for gay and bisexual men. With your help, we have made tremendous strides over the decades. And while there is still much work to do, today we have powerful prevention and treatment tools that can dramatically reduce HIV infections among gay and bisexual men and move us closer to a future free of HIV.

感謝您為男同志和雙性戀男性HIV病毒感染的預防工作所做的貢獻,在您的幫助下,我們在這幾十年間向前邁進了一大步,雖然未來還有許多需要努力,但是今天的我們已經有強大的HIV預防和治療的工具,可以大大減緩男同志和雙性戀男性的HIV病毒感染,並驅使我們更接近一個零HIV病毒感染的未來。

 

 

 

Sincerely, 此致

 

Eugene McCray, MD

尤金 · 麥奎(Eugene McCray)醫生

Director Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov/hiv

國家愛滋病毒預防中心/病毒性肝炎/性病和疾病防控制中心

美國疾病管制中心 首長

 

Jonathan H. Mermin, MD, MPH

強納森 H. 摩敏(Jonathan H. Mermin)醫生,公共衛生碩士

RADM and Assistant Surgeon General, USPHS Director

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.gov/nchhstp

海軍少將/軍醫公共衛生助理局長

 

 

 

 

 

    文章出處:https://docs.wixstatic.com/ugd/de0404_1f9f737da1674cdda5a42f7857cd4fa6.pdf

    中文翻譯:愛滋感染者權益促進會 志工Tommy

    翻譯指正或相關事宜,請與我們聯絡(praatw@gmail.com),謝謝。